Skip to main content
Banner Image Get Help Services About Allen Memorial Library Home VCSU Home Blackboard Off Campus Access Image Map

Citation Guide

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in research papers.

How to Cite VIDEOS

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1993). Schindler's List [DVD]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Video Online

Name (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Available Date of access, from complete URL.

Example:

Andrews, A. (Producer). (2007). Deaf ninja [Video]. Available January 5, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8

Turner Broadcasting (Producer). (2010). CNN hero: Dr. Andy Moore [Video]. Available March 4, 2010, from  http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/living/2010/03/04/pkg.cnnheroes.moore.profile.cnn.html

How to Cite MUSIC RECORDINGS

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Example:

Brahms, J. (1868). Lullaby [Recorded by SPJ Music, Inc.]. On 25 Tranquil Classics [CD] Hauppauge, NY: SPJ Music, Inc. (2002).

How to Cite MOTION PICTURES

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Fonda, H. (Producer), & Lumet, S. (Director). (1957). 12 angry men [Motion picture]. United States of America: Orion-Nova Productions.

How to Cite PHOTOS

Online Photographs

Photographer's Last name, First initial. (Date of composition (if unknown use n.d.)). Title of work. Museum or collection, City of collection or museum. Retrieved Date of access, from complete URL of website

Photographer's Last name, First initial. Date of composition (if unknown use n.d.)). Title of work. Museum or collection, City of collection or museum. Retrieved from Name of database.(

Examples:

Hoflehner, J. (n.d.). Liquid Wall. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4421

Adams, A. (1927). Monolith: The Face of Half Dome. Collection of George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from ARTstor.