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Citation Guide

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in research papers.

Audio/Visual Citations

For more information on citing audio/visual materials, see the MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources page at Purdue OWL.

How to Cite Videos

Video accessed in physical medium

"Episode title, if applicable." Title of video or series. Contributor(s), Distributor, Year.

If citing a person's role in the video then start with the person's name.

Examples:

Carrigan, Tim, narrator. Cooperative Learning. Teacher's Video Company, 1990.

"Best Man for the Gob." Arrested Development: Season One, written by Mitchell Hurwitz and Richard Rosenstock, directed by Lee Shallat-Chemel, 20th Century Fox, 2004.


Video accessed online

General online videos: Video Title. Distributor, date, URL.

TV Series episodes accessed online: "Episode Title." Series Title, season, episode, Network, original air date. Name of web source, URL.

If citing a person's role in the video then start with the person's name.

URLs should omit http://

Examples:

LaDonna Harris: Indian 101. PBS, 31 Oct. 2014, www.pbs.org/video/2365353941/

"Pilot." Brooklyn 99, season 1, episode 1, Fox, 17 Sep. 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/533804.


YouTube Video

"Video title." YouTube, uploaded by username, upload date, URL.

If citing a person's role in the video then start with the person's name.

URLs should omit http://

Examples:

"Later That Night..." YouTube, uploaded by homestarrunnerdotcom, 28 Oct. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Td9n1vNR4YE.

Andrews, Austin, performer. "Deaf Ninja: Origin." YouTube, uploaded by awti, 6 Feb. 2007, www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8.

How to Cite Music Recordings

Last Name, First Name. (Composer, conductor, ensemble, or performer depending on emphasis) "Song." Album, Manufacturer, year of issue.

Example:

Brahms, Johannes. "Lullaby."  25 Tranquil Classics, SPJ Music, Inc., 2002.


Music Recordings Accessed Online

URLs should omit http://

Spotify:

LCMDF. "Fooled." Fooled, Cocoa Music, 2015, Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/3uZlGYrliGOCJy8qxnfEAG.

Online Album:

Media Jeweler. "Autopilot." $99 R/T Hawaii, Fire Talk, 2015, mediajeweler.bandcamp.com/album/99-r-t-hawaii.

How to Cite Motion Pictures (Movies)

Title of motion picture. Directed by First Name Last Name, Studio, Year.

If you are citing the contribution of an individual, begin with that person's name.

Example:

12 angry men. Directed by Sidney Lumet, Orion-Nova, 1957.

Day-Lewis, Daniel, performer. A Room with a View. Goldcrest Films International, 1984.


Motion Pictures accessed online:

If citing a movie accessed online, follow the standard format, but add the online container (Netflix or Amazon, for example) and URL.

URLs should omit http://

Title of motion picture. Directed by First Name Last Name, Studio, Year. Title of online container, URL.

Example:

Frances Ha. Directed by Noah Baumbach, IFC Films, 2012. Netflix, www.netflix.com/title/70257412.

How to Cite Photos

Online Photographs.

Photographer's Last name, First name . Title of work. Date of composition, Museum or collection, (if unknown then use Private Collection without city), City of collection or museum. Name of database or Web site, URL. Accessed date.

URLs should omit http://

Examples:

Hoflehner, Josef. Liquid Wall. 2005, private collection. Joseph Hoflehner Photographer, www.josefhoflehner.com/iceland/02.html. Accessed 10 Nov. 2016.

Adams, Ansel. Monolith: The Face of Half Dome. 1927, Collection of George Eastman House, Rochester. ARTstor, library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8D1Efjk2MjY5MTs4YVN7R3IgWHgqeA%3D%3D&userId=gzRFcjQg&zoomparams=. Accessed 10 Nov. 2016.

How to Cite Visual Art (Paintings, Sculpture, etc.)

Visual Art: General

Artist last name, first name. Title of Work. Year(s) created, material(s), Museum or Collection, Location.

Example:

Rodin, Auguste. The Thinker. 1880-1881, bronze, green patina, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland.


Visual Art: Accessed Online

Artist last name, first name. Title of Work. Year(s) created. Museum or Collection, Location. Title of Database or Web site, URL. Accessed date.

URLs should omit http://

Example:

Bellows, George. Stag at Sharkey's. 1909, oil on canvas, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland. Artstor, library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8D1Efjk2NjsgQi85fzN7THwq&userId=gzRFcjQg&zoomparams=. Accessed 10 Nov. 2016.