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HPER 350: Sport Ethics
Resources and guidance for Commercialization of Sport research assignment.
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Call Number: Valley City State University 3rd Floor (338.43 H786b )
Publication Date: 2010-02-20
Have you ever realized that the sports industry is the only industry in the world that has its own section of the newspaper? And that more newsprint, magazine, and digital column inches are being devoted to the big business of sports each year? If you're a sports fan, most likely you're not getting the full perspective on the business of sports from your favorite sportswriter, blogger, or sports talk radio host. The casual fan is kept in the dark about to what degree this "pastime" is an incredibly complex multinational operation on par with the biggest Fortune 100 companies. Beyond the Box Score: An Insider's Guide to the $750 Billion Business of Sports by CNN and Fox Sports Business Analyst Rick Horrow and Horrow Sports Ventures Vice President Karla Swateck is the first comprehensive look at how the ever-growing professional sports industry really works, from the perspective of a three-decade dealmaker maneuvering within it-and a lifetime true sports fanatic. What are the primary drivers of this multi-billion-dollar industry? Who are the alpha team owners? What role does technology play? What affects the price of your ticket, how you take in a game, what you see on "Sports Center"? How did free agency change everything? Beyond the Box Score takes an in-depth look at the beyond-the-scenes drivers controlling the fan experience.
Call Number: Valley City State University 2nd Floor (796.33 G235b )
Publication Date: 2016-09-06
"oA penetrating examination of how the elite college football programs have become 'giant entertainment businesses that happened to do a little education on the side.'o-Mark Kram, The New York TimesTwo-time Pulitzer-Prize-winning journalist Gilbert M. Gaul offers a riveting and sometimes shocking look inside the money culture of college football and how it has come to dominate a surprising number of colleges and universities.aOver the past decade college football has not only doubled in size, but its elite programs have become a $2.5-billion-a-year entertainment business, with lavishly paid coaches, lucrative television deals, and corporate sponsors eager to slap their logos on everything from scoreboards to footballs and uniforms. Profit margins among the top football schools range from 60% to 75%-results that dwarf those of such high-profile companies as Apple, Facebook, and Microsoft-yet thanks to the support of their football-mad representatives in Congress, teams aren't required to pay taxes. In most cases, those windfalls are not passed on to the universities themselves, but flow directly back into their athletic departments. College presidents have been unwilling or powerless to stop a system that has spawned a wildly profligate infrastructure of coaches, trainers, marketing gurus, and a growing cadre of bureaucrats whose sole purpose is to ensure that players remain academically eligible to play. From the University of Oregon's lavish $42 million academic center for athletes to Alabama coach Nick Saban's $7 million paycheck-ten times what the school pays its president, and 70 times what a full-time professor there earns-Gaul examines in depth the extraordinary financial model that supports college football and the effect it has had not only on other athletic programs but on academic ones as well. What are the consequences when college football coaches are the highest paid public employees in over half the states in an economically troubled country, or when football players at some schools receive ten times the amount of scholarship awards that academically gifted students do'aBillion-Dollar Ballconsiders these and many other issues in a compelling account of how an astonishingly wealthy sports franchise has begun to reframe campus values and distort the fundamental academic mission of our universities. From the Hardcover edition."
Call Number: Valley City State University 2nd Floor (796.043 N672i )
Publication Date: 2016-02-16
For more than half a century, the NCAA has been one of the most powerful institutions in America, acting to prevent college athletes from receiving any money from their labours while enriching everyone else involved in college sports. In 2000 a few brave individuals took on this cartel, and paved the way for others to do the same. This is the story of a small band of renegades who, against all odds, took on the NCAA, nearly bringing it to its knees, and exposing its tyranny to a new wave of challengers.
Call Number: Valley City State University 3rd Floor (306.483 G9327f )
Publication Date: 2016-07-16
Fanaticus: Mischief and Madness in the Modern Sports Fan explores the roots of extreme fanaticism, from organized thuggery to digital hate speech. Justine Gubar divulges outrageous and often shocking incidents, including first-hand accounts from both the transgressors and victims. Gubar reaches back into ancient times, providing a history of fan violence throughout the ages before delving into events of misbehavior, violence, and hatred in the United States and around the world. She revisits several notorious riots and tragedies throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and Latin America in order to understand mayhem on a global scale. In addition, Gubar investigates the sports leagues and the security and beverage industries so as to explain the roots of fan misbehavior and to dispel common myths that are often invoked to understand the madness. Featuring original interviews with European football hooligans, rioting college students, stadium security experts, and many others, Fanaticus provides a rare window into what drives human behavior. Together, these voices create the fullest picture of modern fan violence ever written.
The book critically examines research from cognitive, social, developmental, biological, and evolutionary approaches to psychology and addresses the interplay between media consumption and viewer behavior in such realms as advertising, body image, sex, and violence. Distinguished by its examination of research from a scientifically objective position, the book offers students not only current knowledge of media psychology but also the tools to challenge commonly held assumptions from popular advocacy and ideology.
Reversing Field invites students, professionals, and enthusiasts of sport--whether law, management and marketing, or the game itself--to explore the legal issues and regulations surrounding collegiate and professional athletics in the United States. This theoretical and methodological interrogation of sports law openly addresses race, labor, gender, and the commercialization of sports, while offering solutions to the disruptions that threaten its very foundation during an era of increased media scrutiny and consumerism. In over thirty chapters, academics, practitioners, and critics vigorously confront and debate matters such as the Arms Race, gender bias, racism, the Rooney Rule, and steroid use, offering new thought and resolution to the vexing legal issues that confront sports in the 21st century.
This interesting book discusses the emergence and development of five extremely popular team sports - baseball, basketball, football-soccer, ice hockey and cricket - since the 1800s in 15 different countries. It addresses some of the most provocative, recent and unique economic and business issues associated with team sports in the various nations. For example, to what extent has each of these spectator sports prospered as industries, and will they expand into other regions of the world during the early to mid-2000s? This book answers these questions, and compares the performances of each country's amateur, semiprofessional and/or professional sports leagues and their respective teams by providing detailed statistics and other relevant historical information.
The businesses behind Dubai Sports City, the branding of David Beckham, and the presence and popularity of fantasy sports leagues on the internet are unmistakable indicators that the sports and the entertainment industries are quickly becoming one and the same. But, you needn't travel far or be a hard core sports fan to appreciate this fact. Whether you play Madden NFL on the Wii, use Nike+ along with your iPod to monitor your workouts, or channel surf and take note of the number of athlete-driven commercials, evidence of this transformation is ubiquitous in today's sports viewing and consuming experience. In recent years, the rapid convergence of sports and entertainment has been key to the sports business industry's continued growth and financial success. Money Games not only analyzes how industry stakeholders have monetized this convergence, but also provides readers with answers to this core question: how can the sports business continue to profit from the blurring of sports and entertainment? Author David M. Carter considers a wide array of implications for television content, video gaming, athlete branding, the Internet, mobile technology, gambling, sports-anchored real estate development, venue technology, and corporate marketing--in short, those areas where business opportunities exist now that sports and entertainment have become one. Money Games is a must-read for professionals and future leaders of the sports and entertainment industries, and sports fans will also find an intriguing story about the evolution of the games that they cherish and follow.
Two Supreme Court decisions, NCAA v. Board of Regents (1984) and NCAA v. Tarkanian (1988), have shaped college sports by permitting the emergence of a supercharged commercial enterprise with high financial stakes for institutions and individuals, while failing to guarantee adequate procedural protections for persons charged with wrongdoing within that enterprise. Brian L. Porto examines the conditions that led to the cases, the reasoning behind the justices' rulings, and the consequences of those rulings. Arguing that commercialized college sports should be compatible with the goals of higher education and fair to all participants, Porto suggests that the remedy is a federal statute. His proposed College Sports Legal Reform Act would grant the NCAA a limited "educational exemption" from the antitrust laws, enabling it to enhance academic opportunities for athletes. The Act would also afford greater procedural protections to accused parties in NCAA disciplinary proceedings. Porto's prescription for reform in college sports makes a significant contribution to the debate about how best to address perennial problems in college sports such as cost containment, access to a meaningful education for athletes, and fairness in rule enforcement.
Fans of baseball, football, basketball, and hockey have long been exploited and oppressed by the monopolistic practices of team owners. The time has come for a revolution in the organization of major U.S. sports! Fans of the World, Unite! is a clarion call to sports fans. Appealing to anyone who is in despair due to the greed and incompetence of team owners, this book proposes a significant restructuring of sports leagues. It sets out a rational program for a revolution that will serve the best interests of the fans and of the sport itself. But Stephen F. Ross and Stefan Szymanski are no Marxists: they show how a revolution in the organization of sports might even benefit the owners. By harnessing the power of markets, sports leagues can be made both more responsive to the needs of the fans, and more efficient. Ross and Szymanski have spent many years evaluating the ways in which leagues work across the globe. Drawing on their extensive study of leagues, the authors boil down their plan to two major reforms. Borrowing from NASCAR, they propose that team owners should not own sports leagues as well. Rather, league ownership should be separate. Their second proposal is drawn from soccer: introduce competition through a promotion and relegation system. In this type of system, the worst teams in the league are kicked out at the end of the season and replaced by the best performing teams in the next division down. This gives poor performing teams incentive to step up their game, and allows fresh blood to enter the leagues if the poor performers fail to do so. The main goal of these reforms is to align the financial interest of those who own the league with the best interests of the fans and the sport. Having laid out the problem and the solution, the authors skillfully address practical implications of introducing their scheme, suggesting how leagues might at least make some changes, if not all of those suggested. The time for change has come! Armed with this book, and with fairness on their side, fans can set forth to begin a revolution.
In Changing the Playbook , Howard P. Chudacoff delves into the background and what-ifs surrounding seven defining moments that transformed college sports. These changes involved fundamental issues--race and gender, profit and power--that reflected societal tensions and, in many cases, remain pertinent today: * the failed 1950 effort to pass a Sanity Code regulating payments to football players; * the thorny racial integration of university sports programs; * the boom in television money; * the 1984 Supreme Court decision that settled who could control skyrocketing media revenues; * Title IX's transformation of women's athletics; * the cheating, eligibility, and recruitment scandals that tarnished college sports in the 1980s and 1990s; * the ongoing controversy over paying student athletes a share of the enormous moneys harvested by schools and athletic departments. A thought-provoking journey into the whos and whys of college sports history, Changing the Playbook reveals how the turning points of yesterday and today will impact tomorrow.
Big-time college sports embodies the ideals of amateurism and provides an important complement to university education. Or so its apologists would have us believe. As Andrew Zimbalist shows in this unprecedented analysis, college sports is really a massively commercialized industry based on activities that are often irrelevant and even harmful to education. Zimbalist combines groundbreaking empirical research and a talent for storytelling to provide a firm, factual basis for the many arguments that currently rage about the goals, history, structure, incentive system, and legal architecture of college sports. He paints a picture of a system in desperate need of reform and presents bold recommendations to chart a more sensible future. Zimbalist begins by showing that today's problems are nothing new--that schools have been consumed for more than a century by debates about cheating, commercialism, and the erosion of academic standards. He then takes us into the world of the modern student athlete, explaining the incentives that, for example, encourage star athletes to abandon college for the pros, that create such useless courses as "The Theory of Basketball," and that lead students to ignore classes despite the astronomical odds against becoming a professional athlete. Zimbalist discusses the economic and legal aspects of gender equity in college sports. He assesses the economic impact of television and radio contracts and the financial rewards that come from winning major championships. He examines the often harmful effects of corporate sponsorship and shows that, despite such sponsorship, most schools run their athletic programs at a loss. Zimbalist also considers the relevance of antitrust laws to college sports and asks whether student athletes are ultimately exploited by the system. Zimbalist's provocative recommendations include eliminating freshman eligibility for sports, restricting coaches' access to "sneaker money" from corporations, and ending the hypocrisy about professionalism by allowing teams to employ a quota of non-students as well as to receive funding from the pro leagues. A mixture of lively anecdotes, hard economic data, cogent arguments, and clear analysis, Unpaid Professionals will revitalize debate about a subject close to the hearts and minds of millions of Americans.
Despite the range of theoretical and methological positions adopted and the wide range of issues and topics related to advertising covered by cultural studies, relationships between sport and advertising have been largely overlooked. Given its gobal popularity and its prevalence across the spectrum of cultural and commercial life it is not surprising that scholars interrogating the cultural politics of sport have begun to recognise advertising as an important site for the analysis of power relations, cultural politics and cultural repesentation. Sport, Culture and Advertising presents a first step towards understanding the relationship between advertising and identity with a focus on sport. The book will be useful for scholars across a range of disciplines and will be of interest to students looking for a more critical examination of the commercial realm of sport.
What does commercialisation mean for the future of sport? Modern sports links to commerce are highly visible. Stadiums and arenas bear the names of businesses, while sponsors' logos appear on athletes' clothing and equipment, on the facilities in which they play, and in the titles of the events in which they compete. Media companies pay vast sums for the rights to broadcast sports events, and advertisers pay a premium to promote products during the screening of these events. Cities invest, at the expense of other social projects, in the staging of major sports events and to attract professional teams to their areas. Star athletes are transferred for multi-million fees and professional sport franchises are sold for sums higher than the gross domestic products of some countries. Even recreational athletes are subject to a constant barrage of commercial pressures to improve their game. Sport's links to commerce have intensified over the past 30 years but have been subjected to little academic analysis. This book represents an attempt to fill that significant gap in the literature by examining five different aspects of the commercialisation of sport: #65533; The sports industry #65533; The public sector #65533; The commercialisation of 'amateur' sport #65533; Sport and television #65533; Sports sponsorship There has been a rapid and widespread commercialisation of sport and it is vital that we now raise critical questions and analyse the changes that have taken place.
Praise for the first edition:'An excellent book that tries to come to grips with the ever-increasing role of sport in the media as a particular phenomenon of 20th-century popular culture.'European Journal of Communication (2000)'Excellent, well written and informative... of interest and use to a wider constituency.'Times Higher Education Supplement (May 2000)The fully revised and updated version of this classic text examines the link between three key obsessions of the 21st century: the media, sport and popular culture.Gathering new material from around the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the Beijing Olympics and the rise of new sports stars such as boxing's Amir Khan and cycling's Victoria Pendleton, the authors explore a wide range of sports, as well as issues including nationalism, gender, race, political economy and the changing patterns of media sport consumption.For those interested in media and sport the second edition combines new and original material with an overview of the developing field of media sport, and examines the way in which the media has increasingly come to dominate how sport is played, organized and thought about in society. It traces the historical evolution of the relationship between sport and the media and examines the complex business relationships that have grown up around television, sponsors and sport.Covers the following topics: the history of media in sport; television, sport and sponsorship; why sport matters to television; sports stars; sports journalism; fans and the audience; sport in the digital media economy.
NFL Films changed the way Americans view football. Keepers of the Flame: NFL Films and the Rise of Sports Media traces the subsidiary's development from a small independent film production company to the marketing machine that Sports Illustrated named "perhaps the most effective propaganda organ in the history of corporate America." Drawing on research at the NFL Films Archive and the Pro Football Hall of Fame and interviews with media pioneer Steve Sabol and others, Travis Vogan shows how NFL Films has constructed a consistent, romanticized, and remarkably visible mythology for the National Football League. The company packages football as a visceral and dramatic sequence of violent, beautiful, graceful, and heroic gridiron battles. Historically proven formulas for presentation--such as the dramatic voiceovers once provided by John Facenda's baritone, the soaring scores of Sam Spence's rousing background music, and the epic poetry found in Steve Sabol's scripts--are still used today. From the Vincent Price-narrated Strange but True Football Stories to the currently running series Hard Knocks, NFL Films distinguishes the NFL from other sports organizations and from other media and entertainment. Vogan tells the larger story of the company's relationship with and vast influence on our culture's representations of sport, the expansion of sports television beyond live game broadcasts, and the emergence of cable television and Internet sports media. Keepers of the Flame: NFL Films and the Rise of Sports Media presents sports media as an integral facet of American popular culture and NFL Films as key to the transformation of professional football into the national obsession commonly known as America's Game.
An examination of the central features of the sport-media phenomenon, focusing on Europe and the USA. The book analyses such issues as new media technology; gender, ethnicity and local dimensions of collective identity; women in American basketball advertising; and cult football radio in Scotland.
A Companion to American Sport History presents a collection of original essays that represent the first comprehensive analysis of scholarship relating to the growing field of American sport history. Presents the first complete analysis of the scholarship relating to the academic history of American sport Features contributions from many of the finest scholars working in the field of American sport history Includes coverage of the chronology of sports from colonial times to the present day, including major sports such as baseball, football, basketball, boxing, golf, motor racing, tennis, and track and field� Addresses the relationship of sports to urbanization, technology, gender, race, social class, and genres such as sports biography Awarded 2015 Best Anthology from the North American Society for Sport History (NASSH)