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VCSU Library Citation Guide

Journal of Wildlife Management Basics

  • All citations should be double spaced
  • Indent after the first line of each entry
  • Entries are not numbered
  • If an element is not present, omit it
  • Alphabetize by the first word of the entry
  • Enter author's last name followed by first and middle initials
  • Capitalize ONLY the first word of a title and proper nouns in titles of books and articles, no matter how they appear in a database or catalog

Elements of a Citation

Author The creator of the source. Usually a person (or people) - can also be an organization, company, government body, etc. 
Date of Publication The date the source was created
Article Title An article is a written composition on a topic of interest, which forms a separate part of a book, magazine or newspaper.
Journal Title Journal is a type of magazine which contains articles and other descriptions on a particular discipline or professional activities.
Volume  volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated
Issue issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year
Page Range Page range of the entire article should be included in bibliography, not just the page you used for information
DOI or URL DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of characters used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. If citing an electronic source a DOI or URL should be included.
Publisher The company that published the source, often a university press

First Page

Single-space the following information in the upper left corner:

date (update with each revision)

author’s name,





Use Hanging Indent citations [in Word, highlight text, right click, select Paragraph, and choose “Hanging” under Indentation:]

  • List your references or sources used beginning on a new page, not following the conclusion paragraph(s).
  • May use Works Cited, Bibliography, or Literature Cited as the page heading.  
  • Center the heading (Works Cited, Bibliography, etc.) at the top of the Works Cited page.
  • List references alphabetically by author/editor last name.  If no author/editor is present, alphabetize by title of the work, omitting initial A, An, or The.
  • Double space citations [in Word, highlight text, right click, select Paragraph, and choose “Double” under Spacing: ]
  • Double space between each reference listed.


Basic Format

AuthorLastName, A. A. Year of Publication. Title of book. Edition (if applicable) Publisher, Place of Publication.


Jennings, B., T. T. Cable, and R. Burrows. 2005. Birds of the Great Plains. Lone Pine, Auburn, Washington, USA. 

Edited Book Without Author                                                                                           

EditorLastName, E. E., editor. Year of Publication. Title of book. Publisher, Place of Publication.


Dregni, M., editor. 1999. This old farm: a treasury of family farm memories. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota, USA. 

Chapter in an Edited Book                                                                                             

AuthorLastName, A. A. Year of Publication. Title of chapter. Pages ##-## in E. E. EditorLastName, editor. Title of book. 

Publisher, Place of Publication.


Matthew, R. A. 2014. Climate change and human security. Pages 257-294 in J. F. C. DiMento and P. Doughman, editor.

Climate change: what it means for us, our children, and our grandchildren. Second Edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Multivolume Work                                                                                                      

AuthorLastName, A. A.  Year of Publication. Title of book. Volume #. Publisher, Place of Publication.


Briggs, W. R., R. L. Jones, and V. Walbot. 1985. Annual review of plant physiology. Volume 36. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, California,


Notes about Citing Journal Articles

  • Only include the issue number of a journal if each issue in a volume has unique page numbers.
  • Some journals have e-locators instead of page numbers, when this is the case, replace the page number with the e-locator.

Basic Format                                                                                                               

AuthorLastName, A. A., and B. B. AuthorLastName. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume #(Issue #): Full

page range.


Zelenak, J. R., and J. J. Rotella. 1997. Nest success and productivity of ferruginous hawks in northern Montana. Canadian

Journal of Zoology 75:233-237. 


Note about Government Reports

  • If the government agency or office that created the report has a state name in it, leave out the state name from the place of publication.

Report by Government Agency or Other Organization

Government Agency/Organization. Date of Publication. Title of publication. Edition Number and/or Series & Number (if applicable). Place of Publication. 


North Dakota Game and Fish Department. 2022. Status of mountain lion management in North Dakota, 2022.

Bismarck, USA.

Report by Individual Authors at Government Agency or Other Organization

AuthorLastName, A.A.. Date of Publication. Title of publication. Name of Government Agency/Office Series & number (if applicable), Place of Publication. 


Breeggmann, J. J., B. Graeb, S. Gangl, and R. Hiltner. 2013. Growth potential of walleye in Devil's Lake, North

Dakota. North Dakota Game and Fish Department Fisheries Division Report 88, Bismark, USA.

Basic Format

AuthorLastName, A. A.  Date of Publication. Title of thesis/dissertation. Source Type, Institution Name, Place of publication.

Note: For source type, use Thesis for an M.A. or M.S. paper and Dissertation for a Ph.D. paper.


Elsheim, M. 2022. Designing sustainable fish boxes for distribution of fish. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and

Technology, Trondheim, Norway.


Author/Organization Name. Date of Publication. Web page name. <URL>.  Accessed Day Month Year.


National Wildlife Foundation [NWF]. 2023. Moose. <

Guide/Mammals/Moose>. Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

Newspaper, Newsletters, and Magazine Articles

AuthorLastName, A. A. Year of Publication. Title of article. Name of Newspaper/Magazine/Newsletter. Volume(Issue # if applicable): page range. 


Wilson, R. 2023. Working with partners. North Dakota Outdoors. 86(3):6-9. 

Authors & In-Text Citations in Journal of Wildlife Management

- When listing author in bibliography use last name and first initial; only use last name in the in-text citation.

- If you name the author in the sentence, omit the author name in the in-text citation.

  In-Text          Bibliography
Single Author

(Smith 2021)

Smith, J. 

Two Authors

(Smith and Thompson 2021). 

Smith, J., and E. Thompson.

3 - 9  Authors

(Smith et al. 2021). 

List by their last names and initials (only first author is backwards). Separate author names with a comma.

10 or more Authors (Smith et al. 2021).  List the first 10 by their last names and initials (only first author is backwards) followed by et al. Separate author names with a comma.