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VCSU Library Citation Guide

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Emily Connor Dafoe
Contact:
Emily Connor Dafoe
Research & Instruction Librarian
Allen Memorial Library
Valley City State University
t. 701-845-7287

Turabian (Notes/Bibliography) Basics

  • This style uses footnotes (at the bottom of each page) and a full bibliography at the end of the paper
  • All citations should be single spaced
  • Indent after the first line of each entry
  • Entries are not numbered
  • If an element is not present, omit it
  • Alphabetize by the first word of the entry
  • Enter author's last name followed by full first name for first author - additional authors will be ordered normally (FirstName LastName). 
  • Capitalize all words of the title (aside from transitional words like a, and, or, etc.). 

Elements of a Citation

Author The creator of the source. Usually a person (or people) - can also be an organization, company, government body, etc. 
Date of Publication The date the source was created
Article Title An article is a written composition on a topic of interest, which forms a separate part of a book, magazine or newspaper.
Journal Title Journal is a type of magazine which contains articles and other descriptions on a particular discipline or professional activities.
Volume  volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated
Issue issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year
Page Range Page range of the entire article should be included in bibliography, not just the page you used for information
DOI or URL DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of characters used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. If citing an electronic source a DOI or URL should be included.
Publisher The company that published the source, often a university press

Title Page

Class papers should begin with a title page (but some put the title on the first page - consult with your instructor). 

Place the title of the paper a third of the way down the page (centered)

Several lines below the title, place your name, and other relevant information (such as date, instructor's name, etc.) 

Bibliography

Label the page, Bibliography

Leave two lines between title and first entry with one blank line between entries

Entries should be single spaced

Arrange entries alphabetically

Basic Format

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page number.

Shortened Notes

2. Author Last Name, Shortened Title of Book, Page number.

Bibliography

Author Last name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.


Chapter in an Edited Book                                                                                             

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, “Title of Chapter,” in Title of Book, ed. Editor First name Last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.

Shortened Notes

2. Author Last Name, "Shortened Title of Chapter," Page number.

Bibliography

Author Last name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Full page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.


eBook 

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page number, URL/Database.

Shortened Notes

2. Author Last Name, Shortened Title of Book, Page number.

Bibliography

Author Last name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. URL/Database.


Translated Book                                                                                                          

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of Book, trans. First Name Last Name of Translator (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page number.

Shortened Notes

2. Author Last Name, Shortened Title of Book, Page number.

Bibliography

Author Last name, First Name. Title of Book. Translated by First Name Last Name of translator. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Basic Format                                                                                                               

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume Number, no. issue number (Month Year): page number, DOI/URL.

Shortened Notes

4. Author Last Name, “Shortened Article Title,” page number.

Bibliography

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume Number, no. issue number (Month Year): page number. DOI/URL.

General Format

Notes

1. Name of Government, Title, Name of Individual Author, Report Number, date of publication, page numbers, URL. 

2. Select Committee on Homeland Security, Homeland Security Act of 2002, 107th Cong., 2d sess., 2002, HR Rep. 107-609, pt. 1, 11-12. 

Bibliography

Name of Government. Title. Name of Individual Author. Report Number, date of publication. page numbers. URL. 

US Congress, House of Representatives, Select Committee on Homeland Security. Homeland Security Act of 2002. 107th Cong., 2d sess., 2002. HR Rep. 107-609, pt. 1. 

Note: by convention ordinals in public documents end in d instead of nf (2d instead of 2nd). 

For more information and specifics consult the Turabian guide (pages 214-222)

General Format

Notes

1. Author/Creator, “Title,” other creators as relevant, Date, source type, time stamp, URL.

2. Beyoncé, “Sorry,” directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles, June 22, 2016, music video, 4:25, https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.
Shortened Notes

3. Author Last Name, “Shortened Article Title.”

4. Beyoncé, “Sorry.”

Bibliography

Author last name, First Name. “Title.” Other creators. Date. Source type, time. URL.

Beyoncé. “Sorry.” Directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles. June 22, 2016. Music video, 4:25. https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.

Basic Format

Notes

1. Author First Name Last Name, “Title” (Source Type, Institution, Location, Year), Page Number, Database/DOI/URL.

Shortened Notes

2. Author Last Name, "Shortened Title," Page number.

Bibliography

Author First Name Last Name. “Title.” Source Type, Institution, Location, Year, Page range. Database/DOI/URL.

General Format

Notes

1. Author First name last name (@username),  In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post,” Source type, date, URL.
Shortened Notes

4. Author Last Name, “Shortened Title.”

Bibliography

Author last name, first name (@username).  In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.” Source type, date. URL.

Website

Notes

1. “Page title,” Website Name, Organization/Author, date, URL.

Shortened Notes

4. Author Last Name/Organization, “Page title.”

Bibliography

Organization/Author. “Webpage title.” Website name. Date. URL. 

Basic Format

Notes

5. Author first name last name, “Title of article,” Name of newspaper/magazine, date, URL.

Shortened Notes

4. Author Last Name, “Shortened Article Title.”

Bibliography

Author last name, first name. “Article title.” Name of newspaper/magazine, date. URL.


Personal interviews, correspondence, and other types of personal communications—including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media—are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

Notes:

1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.

2. Interview with home health aide, July 31, 2017.

Multiple Authors in Turabian (N/B)

- When listing author in bibliography use last name and full first name. In footnotes also list full name (first name then last name for footnotes). 

- If you have multiple sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation: (Smith 2021a, 29) / (Smith 2021b, 43). 

  Footnotes Bibliography
Single Author

John Smith

Smith, John. 

Two - Three Authors

John Smith and Edward Thompson.

Smith, John, and Edward Thompson.

Four or more Authors

John Smith et al.

List all authors