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VCSU Library Citation Guide

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Emily Connor Dafoe
Contact:
Emily Connor Dafoe
Research & Instruction Librarian
Allen Memorial Library
Valley City State University
t. 701-845-7287

Additional Sources

MLA Basics

  • Italicize titles of self-contained works (books, periodicals, films, television series, etc)
  • All citations should be double spaced
  • Indent after the first line of each entry
  • If an element is not present, omit it
  • Capitalize titles of books and articles according to convention, no matter how they appear in a database or catalog
  • Dates are in Day Month Year format (e.g. 12 Dec. 1992)
  • If the page numbers are three or more digits, shorten the second number to two digits when possible. Examples: 8-9; 44-49; 112-23; 492-506; 1253-66.

Elements of a Citation

Author The creator of the source. Usually a person (or people) - can also be an organization, company, government body, etc. 
Date of Publication The date the source was created
Article Title An article is a written composition on a topic of interest, which forms a separate part of a book, magazine or newspaper.
Journal Title Journal is a type of magazine which contains articles and other descriptions on a particular discipline or professional activities.
Volume  volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated
Issue issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year
Page Range Page range of the entire article should be included in bibliography, not just the page you used for information
DOI or URL DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of characters used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. If citing an electronic source a DOI or URL should be included.
Publisher The company that published the source, often a university press

First Page

Works Cited

Basic Format

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Edited Book (with author)                                                                                            

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book, edited by First Name Last Name, City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Edited Book (no author)                                                                                            

Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Work Within an Anthology

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.


Multi Volume Work                                                                                                      

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book, vol. #. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Translated Book                                                                                                          

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book, translated by First Name Last Name, City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Dictionary, Encyclopedia, etc. 

"Entry title." Title of Book. Edition. Date of Publication. 

Basic Format                                                                                                               

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

Report by Government Agency or Other Organization

Name of Government, Name of Responsible Agency. Title of Publication. Publisher's Name, Date.

United States, Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary. Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure, December 1, 2015. Government Printing Office, 2015.

Film or Video

Title of Film. Directed by First Name Last Name, performances by First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name, Studio Name, Release Year.


TV Series

Last Name, First Name and First Name Last Name, creators. Title of Series. Production Studio(s), Release Year.


TV Series Episode (DVD)

"Title of Episode." Series Title, written by First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name, directed by First Name Last Name, Studio Name, Release Year.


TV Series Episode (Streaming)

"Title of Episode." Series Title, season #, episode #, Studio Name, Release Year. Streaming Platform, URL. 


YouTube Video

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by User Name, Upload Date, URL. 

“Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by User Name, Upload Date, URL. 


Podcast Episode

“Title of Episode.” Podcast Name from Podcast Studio Name, Release Date, URL.


Song (CD)

Recording Artist. "Title of Song." Name of Album, Name of Studio, Year of Release.


Song (Streaming)

Recording Artist. "Title of Song." Name of Album, Name of Studio, Year of Release. Streaming Service, URL.


Artwork (Physical)

Last Name, First Name. Name of Artwork. Date of Creation, Location.


Artwork (Viewed Online)

Last Name, First Name. Name of Artwork. Date of Creation, Location, URL

Basic Format

Last Name, First Name. Title of Thesis/Dissertation. Date of Publication. University Name, Type of Source, URL. 

Tweet

@UserName. “Tweet in Entirety.” Twitter, Date of Posting, 0:00 a/p.m., URL.


Blog Post

Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Website (with author)

Last Name, First Name. “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.


Website (organization as author)

Organization Name. “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.


Website (organization same as site name)

“Posting Title.” Name of Site, Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Magazine / Newspapers

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

When citing indirect citations (if a source references or quotes another source) provide the source in which the original work was referenced in the bibliography. For the in-text citation:

Researchers Smith point out that “workers are objects of information collection without participating in the process of exchanging the information” (qtd. in Johnson 14).

 

Authors & In-Text Citations in MLA

- When listing author in bibliography use last name and full first name; only use last name in the in-text citation.

- Also include page number (Smith 234)

- If you name the author in the sentence, omit the author name in the in-text citation.

- If you have multiple sources by the same author, use a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation: (Haynes, The Last Segregated Hour 57)

  In-Text Bibliography
Single Author (Smith 34) Smith, John.
Two Authors (Smith and Lerner 34) Smith, John, and Neal Lerner
3+ Authors (Smith et al. 34) Smith, John, et al